Declaraciones y nuevas direcciones del 77 debate de Naciones Unidas

Statements and new directions of the 77th United Nations Debate

Oct 26, 2022 | Articles, Publications |

A few days ago, the international community met at the seventy-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York. From GATE, we take this opportunity to delve into the statements made by world political leaders in the general debate, and the needs and directions put forward by the international community.

The opening session of the general debate focused on the hostility and dangers that define the political, social, economic and environmental situation in which we find ourselves. UN Secretary General António Guterres opened the debate by emphasizing the global stagnation and dysfunction in which the world is immersed. He further stressed that divisions within the international community prevent us from collectively and unifiedly addressing “the crises that threaten the very future of humanity and the fate of our planet.” In Guterres’ words, “at one point, when we seemed to be heading towards the G-2 world, we now risk ending up with the G-nothing: no cooperation, no dialogue, no collective problem-solving.”

Although progress was mentioned, such as the peace process taking root in Colombia, the fact is that environmental problems and the absolute violation of international rights in Ukraine overshadowed the statements of the Secretary General and other world leaders.

War in Ukraine

One of the most awaited moments was President Zelenski’s statement on the Russian invasion. The Ukrainian leader warned that it is a “crime committed against the life of the Ukrainian people” and “against the values that make you and me a community of the United Nations”.

For all these reasons, the general debate was a good occasion to present a proposal for the constitution of a special tribunal with the aim of protecting any country suffering the consequences of an invasion such as the one suffered by Ukraine. The objective of presenting a peace formula in which legally binding multilateral and bilateral treaties are generated was also emphasized. The aim is to criminalize crime, protect life, reestablish security and territorial integrity, guarantee security and establish defense strategies. Zelensky appealed to the United Nations to support an international compensation mechanism to make Russia pay for everything it has destroyed and made requests for humanitarian and financial aid and military weapons.

Many countries openly showed solidarity with Ukraine. For example, some foreign ministers of Latin American countries condemned Russia for committing an “unjustifiable military invasion” and called for a withdrawal from the conflict as soon as possible. Similarly, Mexico used the occasion to propose a high-level diplomatic entourage (with world leaders such as Secretary General António Guterres, Modi and Pope Francis, among others), which in a complementary way could help rebuild trust between Ukraine and Russia. Mexican Foreign Secretary Marcelo Ebrard also highlighted the socio-economic consequences of the conflict on the rest of the world and the Security Council’s inaction in the face of the invasion.

Energy security

However, there has also been some concern about energy pressures. The aggregate effects of the Ukrainian conflict, pandemic pressures, energy security and the climate emergency have driven a shift in energy supply priorities. Nuclear power is expected to account for 15% of total electricity by 2050.

In fact, a direct appeal was made to the need to democratize the United Nations, unseating the hegemonic control of the United States and some European countries. In addition, the need to create a new international order with multilateralism at the center of the agenda was also expressed, and the “illegal, arbitrary and illicit” sanctions that have been imposed, which, in the words of the Secretary General, aim to continue “punishing and dividing the world”, were rejected.

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